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Home > Craft Topics > Regulations > Jam Producers

Jam / Marmalade and Puree Producers

The following information is for guidance only. For further information, please contact your local Trading Standards Service. 

 

The labelling and composition of jam and similar products, such as jelly, marmalade, jelly marmalade, curd, flavour curd, sweetened chestnut puree and mincemeat, is controlled by the Jam and Similar Products (Scotland ) Regulations 2004, which apply to products intended for sale to the ultimate consumer or catering establishment.

The Regulations do not apply to any such products intended for manufacture of fine bakery wares, pastries or biscuits.

 

Jam and marmalade

 

Jams made using certain types of fruit have 'reserved descriptions' which can only be used in the labelling of the product if it has been manufactured to the criteria as set out in the Regulations.

These state that the product must contain the following amounts of fruit per kilogram of finished product:

1. 250g in the case of redcurrants, blackcurrants, rosehips, rowanberries, sea buckthorns or quinces.
2. 150g in the case of ginger.
3. 160g in the case of cashew apples.
4. 60g in the case of passion fruit.
5. 350g in the case of any other fruit.

Similarly, marmalade is required to contain not less than 200g of citrus fruit per kilogram of the finished product, and at least 75g of this must come from peel. Marmalade can only be made from citrus fruits.

These quantities vary if the jam or marmalade is described as 'extra', 'jelly' or 'extra jelly':

 

Extra jam

 

1. 350g in the case of redcurrants, blackcurrants, rosehips, rowanberries, sea buckthorns or quinces.
2. 250g in the case of ginger.
3. 230g in the case of cashew apples.
4. 80g in the case of passion fruit.
5. 450g in the case of any other fruit.

 

Jelly

 

1. 250g in the case of redcurrants, blackcurrants, rosehips, rowanberries, sea buckthorns or quinces.
2. 150g in the case of ginger.
3. 160g in the case of cashew apples.
4. 60g in the case of passion fruit.
5. 350g in the case of any other fruit.

 

Extra jelly

 

1. 350g in the case of redcurrants, blackcurrants, rosehips, rowanberries, sea buckthorns or quinces.
2. 250g in the case of ginger.
3. 230g in the case of cashew apples.
4. 80g in the case of passion fruit.
5. 450g in the case of any other fruit.

 

Jelly marmalade

 

As for marmalade but where the product contains no insoluble matter, except possibly for small quantities of finely sliced peel.

 

Sweetened chestnut puree

 

Must consist of not less than 380g of pureed chestnuts per kilogram of finished product.

 

All these products must have a soluble solids content of the finished product of not less than 60%, as determined by a refractometer at 20º.

 

Additional ingredients

 

The above named products may not be classed as specified products under these Regulations if they contain any additional ingredients, other than permitted additional ingredients as set out in Schedule 2 of the Regulations

 

Permitted ingredients are:

1. honey - in all products, as a total or partial substitute for sugars;
2. fruit juice - only in jam;
3. citrus fruit juice - in products obtained from other types of fruit: only in jam, extra jam, jelly and extra jelly;
4. red fruit juices - only in jam and extra jam manufactured from rosehips, strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, redcurrants, plums and rhubarb;
5. red beetroot juice - only in jam and jelly manufactured from strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, redcurrants and plums;
6. essential oils of citrus fruits - only in marmalade and jelly marmalade;
7. edible oils and fats as anti-foaming agents - in all products;
8. liquid pectin - in all products;
9. citrus peel - in jam, extra jam, jelly and extra jelly;
10. leaves of Pelargonium odoratissimum - in jam, extra jam, jelly and extra jelly, where they are made from quinces;
11. spirits, wine and liqueur wine, nuts, aromatic herbs, spices, vanilla and vanilla extracts - in all products;
12. Vanillin - in all products, and
13. any substance permitted, as defined in Council Directive 89/107/EEC on the approximation of the laws of Member States concerning food additives authorised for use in foodstuffs intended for human consumption.

 

Permitted treatments

 

A product is not a specified jam or similar product if any raw material used in the preparation of that food has been subjected to any treatment, other than treatments permitted by Schedule 2 of the Regulations which states:

Fruit pulp, fruit puree and aqueous extract of fruit may be treated in the following ways:

1. Heated, chilled or frozen.
2. Freeze-dried.
3. Concentrated, to the extent that is technically possible.
4. Except in relation to extra jam or extra jelly, sulphited, i.e. sulphur dioxide (E220) or its salts (E221, E222, E223, E224, E226 and E227) may be used as an aid to manufacture, provided that the maximum sulphur dioxide content laid down in Directive 95/2/EC is not exceeded (100 mg/kg in relation to jams, jellies and marmalades made with sulphited fruit).

Apricots and plums to be used in the manufacture of jam may also be treated by other drying processes, apart from freeze-drying.

Citrus peel may, additionally, be preserved in brine.

 

Additionally

 

'Reduced sugar jam' - this description must only be used for a food whose composition is the same as that of jam, except that its soluble solids content must not be less than 25% and not more than 50%.

 

X curd

 

1. The quantity of fat and oil used for every kilogram of the finished product must be not less than 40g.
2. The quantity of whole and egg yolk used for every kilogram of finished product must be not less than 6.5g of egg yolk solids.
3. The quantity of fruit, fruit pulp, fruit puree, fruit juice, aqueous extract of fruit and essential oil of fruit must be sufficient to characterise the finished product.

 

Y flavour curd

 

1. The quantity of fat and oil used for every kilogram of the finished product must be not less than 40g.
2. The quantity of whole and egg yolk used for every kilogram of finished product must be not less than 6.5g of egg yolk solids.
3. The quantity of flavouring material used must be sufficient to characterise the product.

 

Mincemeat

 

1. The quantity of vine fruits and citrus peel used for every kilogram of finished product must not be less than 300g, of which, not less than 200g consists of vine fruits.
2. The quantity of suet or equivalent fat used for every 1000g of the finished product is not less that 25g.

 

Curds and mincemeats are required to have a soluble solids content of 65% or more, as determined by a refractometer at 20ºC.

 

Labelling

 

Products manufactured to meet the compositional requirements of the Regulations must be labelled with the 'reserved description' in the name of the food. The name of the fruit(s) used in jams, etc, must be included in the product name, e.g. 'Strawberry Jam'. For marmalade, the fruit type(s) must also be given.

If the product is made from more than one fruit, each type must be given.

Where a product is prepared from two types of fruit, an indication is required in the name of the foods of those types of fruits, in descending order of weight of the fruit pulp, fruit puree, fruit juice, fruit peel and aqueous extract of fruit used in the preparation of the product.

If a product is made from three or more types of fruit, an indication is required in the name of the food of those types of fruits, in descending order of weight of the fruit pulp, fruit puree, fruit juice, fruit peel and aqueous extract of fruit used in the preparation of the product or, alternatively, the words 'mixed fruit' or similar wording, or the number of types of fruit used in the preparation of the product.

However, for 'X curd', X may be substituted with the name of a particular type of fruit, or the words 'mixed fruit', or the word 'fruit', preceded by an indication of the number of types of fruit used in the preparation of the food.

For 'Y flavour curd', Y may be substituted with the name of a particular type of fruit or the words 'mixed fruit'.

 

Jams, extra jams, jelly, extra jelly, marmalades, jelly marmalade, sweetened chestnut puree but NOT curds, flavour curds or mincemeat

 

The label for jams and similar products, other than those prepacked for direct sale, must include the two following statements:

 

"Prepared with Xg fruit per 100g", where X is the amount of fruit used in 100g of finished product.

 

"Total sugar content: Yg per 100g", where Y is the amount of sugar determined by a refractometer at 20º C.

 

A refractometer is a small piece of equipment onto which a small quantity of jam is smeared so the sugar content can be measured.

Where any specified jam or similar product has a residual sulphur dioxide content of more than 10mg/kg, that residual content must be identified in the list of ingredients according to the percentage by weight of the residue in the product as 'sulphur dioxide'.

These labelling requirements are in addition to the general food labelling provisions of the Food Labelling Regulations 1996, which require:

1. name of the food;
2. list of ingredients, including the quantity or certain ingredients or categories of ingredients (see below);
3. indication of specified allergenic ingredients;
4. an appropriate durability date mark, i.e. 'best before';
5. any special storage conditions or conditions for use; and
6. the name or business name and address of the manufacturer, packer or seller within the EC.

The Food Labelling Regulations (as amended) require ingredients that characterise a food to be quantitatively declared in the ingredients list. For jams made from a single fruit, the "prepared from Xg fruit per 100g" statement will suffice. However, where jams contain two or more different types of fruit in unequal proportions, it is necessary to declare the percentage fruit content of each type of fruit separately in the ingredients list. This does not apply if the fruits are in equal proportions or where the name of the food is 'Mixed Fruit Jam'.

 

Weight marks

 

Jams, jellies and marmalades must be made up in quantities prescribed by the Weights and Measures (Miscellaneous Foods) Order 1988. These are 57g, 113g, 227g, 340g, 454g, 680g and multiples of 454g.

 

Quantity marks

 

These must be stated in metric quantities and must be easy to understand, clearly legible, easily visible, not hidden or obscured, or interrupted by any other written or pictorial matter.

Size of fonts must be:

 

Mass or Weight

Minimum height of figures

0 - 50g

2mm

>50g - 200g

3mm

>200g - 1kg

4mm

>1kg

6mm

 

Use of the term 'organic'

 

For any product being made from organic ingredients and intended to be marketed as an organic product, the name of the food should still be "X jam made from organically produced X". An appropriate organic certification mark must also be included on the label (e.g. UK 2). Registration with an appropriate United Kingdom Certification body is also required. For organic information visit http://www.walkaboutcrafts.com/crafttopics/regulations/organic.htm 

 

For further information on the composition and food labelling aspects of this guidance, please contact your local Environmental Health Service. For information on the metrology aspects please contact your local Trading Standards Service.

 

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